Research of individual components of hydrological and hydrochemical regimes of the Danube River within the Ukrainian interval from Reni to Izmail
Introduction. This investigation aims at studying the individual components of the hydrological and hydrochemical regimes of the Danube River (within Ukraine) in connection with the widespread use of the river's water for water supply and irrigation in the southern region, as well as to ensure more effective regulation of water-salt regime of the Danube lakes using the Danube River as a main source for their water renewal. One of important aspects includes the study of the regime of the Danube River's suspended sediments brought to its delta due to their impact on the formation of the delta at the river's mouth of as well as due to the impact on siltation of deltaic and pre-delta lakes and canals connecting the lakes with the Danube River.
Purpose. The purpose of the work is to study long-term and current trends related to changes in hydrological (water levels and discharges, suspended sediments runoff) and hydrochemical (mineralization) regimes of the Danube River within the Ukrainian interval from Reni to Izmail, internal annual distribution of water runoff, as well as suspended sediments runoff and mineralization during the years of varying water content.
Results. The statistical analysis of long-term series of observations over the Danube River within the interval from Reni to Izmail resulted in discovering that time trends of average, maximum and minimum water levels (1921-2015) and discharges (1840-2015) indicate the presence of a weak increase in their growth over time, with a more pronounced increase in maximum water levels or discharges. The annual distribution shows the general synchronicity of fluctuations in runoff characteristics, and the maximum monthly values of water discharge differ have more pronounced seasonal fluctuations.
The study shows the presence of a pronounced trend to reduction of suspended sediments runoff of the Danube River at Reni (for the period of 1840-2015), with their most intensive decrease over the period of 1990-2015. Annual distribution of average monthly suspended sediments runoff of the Danube River for the years with typical water content (for the period of 1978-2015) showed that they have seasonal fluctuations. At the same time, there is a decrease in the suspended sediments runoff along the length of the river from Reni to Izmail.
The long-term course of average annual mineralization values of the Danube River at Izmail (1981-2015) is characterized by their decrease against the background of a small increase in average annual discharges. As per the annual distribution of mineralization values associated with all water content groups there are the periods related to the phases of the river's yearly water regime during and the economic use of water.
Conclusion. Thus, the increase in the long-term period of the Danube River runoff within the interval from Reni to Izmail will contribute to the development of the region's economy and water supply, irrigated farming, regulation of the Danube Lakes filling with weakly mineralized river water. At the same time, the reduction of the suspended sediments runoff will restrain the siltation of the inlet canals connecting the lakes with the Danube River, which will improve the water renewal of the lakes with the river's fresh waters.
Gidrologicheskiy spravochnik reki Dunay 1921-2010 / Dunayskaya komissiya. Budapesht [Danube River Hydrological Guide 1921-2010 / Danube Commission]. Available at: http://www.danubecommission.org/ uploads/doc/publication/2018/spravocnik_1921_2010.pdf. (Accessed: 23.09.2020). Budapesht. (in Russ.)
Palamarchuk, M.M. & Zakorchevna, N.B. (2001). Vodnyi fond Ukrainy [Water Fund of Ukraine]: Edited by Khoriev V. M., Aliiev K. A. Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr. (in Ukr.)
Obshchie svedeniya o reke Dunay / Dunayskaya komissiya [General information about the Danube River / Danube Commission]. Available at: http://www.danubecommission.org/dc/ru/дунайское-судоходство/общие-сведения-о-реке-дунай/ (Accessed: 25.06.2020). (in Russ.)
Nikiforova, Ja.D. (ed.). (1963). Gidrologiya ust'evoy oblasti Dunaya [Hydrology of the Danube estuary]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat Publ. (in Russ.)
Mihajlova, V.N. (2004). Gidrologija del'ty Dunaja [Danube Delta hydrology]. Moscow: GEOS Publ. (in Russ.)
Bondar, K. (1992) [The trend and cyclical nature of the annual flow of water on the Danube at the entrance to the delta]. Sbornik dokladov XVI Konferentsii pridunayskikh stran po gidrologicheskim osnovam vodnogo hozyaystva [Collection of reports of the XVI Conference of the Danube countries on the hydrological foundations of water management], 18-22 may. Kelheim. National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for UNESCO IHP. Koblenz, pp. 321-325. (in Russ.)
Miliman, J.D. et al. (1995). River discharge to the sea. A Global River Index / LOICZ Reports and studies, 125 p.
Levashova, E.A. et al. (2004). Estestvennye i antropogennye izmeneniya stoka vody i nanosov v ust'e Dunaya [Natural and anthropogenic changes in water and sediment runoff at the Danube estuary]. Vodnye resursy [Water resources], 31(3), pp. 261-272. (in Russ.)
Pekárová, P. et al. (2019). Average daily discharge and annual peak discharge series collection. Flood regime of rivers in the Danube River basin. Follow-up volume IX of the Regional Co-operation of the Danube Countries in IHP UNESCO. IH SAS. Edited by Pekárová P., Miklánek P. Bratislava, 215 p. + 527 p. https://doi:10.31577/ 2019.9788089139460
Birsan, M.-V. et al. (2005). Streamflow trends in Switzerland, Journal of Hydrology, 314, pp. 312-329.
Fürst, J. et al. (2008). Trends in hydrological variables and in Austria's water balance: Effects of climate change on Austrian water management. Bundesministerium für Land -und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft. Edited by Nachtnebel H. P. Beč, Austrija, pp. 105-115.
Pekárová, P. et al. (2008). Flood regime of rivers in the Danube River basin, Regional cooperation of Danube Countries within the framework of UNESCO International Hydrological Program, PROJECT 9, 51 р.
Bormann, H. (2010). Runoff regime changes in German rivers due to climate change. Erdkunde, 64(3), pp. 257-279.
Čanjevac, I. (2012). [Recent changes in flow ridges in the Croatian part of the Danube basin]. Hrvatski geografski glasnik [Croatian Geographical Bulletin], 74(1). рр. 61-74.
Stratimirovic̀, D. et al. (2019). Changes in long-term properties of the Danube river level and flow induced by damming. Water Resources Research, pр. 1-25.
Zabolotnia, T., Gorbachova, L. & Khrystiuk, B. (2019). Estimation of the long-term cyclical fluctuations of snow-rain floods in the Danube basin within Ukraine. Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management, 7(2), pp. 1-12.
Pekárová, P., Miklánek, P. (eds.). (2019). Flood regime of rivers in the Danube River basin. Follow-up volume IX of the Regional. Co-operation of the Danube Countries in IHP UNESCO. IH SAS, Bratislava, 215 p. + 527 p. https://doi:10.31577/2019.9788089139460
Stagl, J.C. & Hattermann, F.F. (2015). Impacts of Climate Change on the Hydrological Regime of the Danube River and Its Tributaries Using an Ensemble of Climate Scenarios. Water, 7, рр. 6139-6172. https://doi:10.3390/ w7116139
Bisselink, B. et al. (2018). Impact of a changing climate, land use, and water usage on water resources in the Danube river basin, EUR 29228 EN. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, рр. 3-70. https://doi:10.2760/89828
Loboda, N.S., & Bozhok, Yu.V. (2016) [Assessment of water resources change of the Danube river in the XXI Century under the scenario A1B using the model «climate-runoff»], Ukraïnsʹkij gìdrometeorologìčnij žurnal [Ukrainian hydrometeorological journal], 18, pp. 112-122. (in Ukr.)
Blöschl, G. et al. (2017). Changing climate shifs timing of European foods, Science, 357, рр. 588-590.
Romanova, Y. et al. (2019). Temporal variation of water discharges in the lower course of the Danube River across the area from Reni to Izmail under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors. Energetika, 65, pp. 144-160. https://doi.org/10.6001/energetika.v65i2-3.4108
Shuiskyi, Yu.D. (2009). Pro antropohenni ta pryrodni peretvorennia v delti Dunaiu. [On anthropogenic and natural transformations in the Danube Delta]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats VI Mizhnarodnoi konferentsii Faltsfeinivski chytannia [Proceedings of the VI International Conference Falzfein Readings], 21-23 may. Kherson : PP Vyshemyrskyi, pp. 455-450. (in Ukr.)
Cheroj, A.I. & Karteljan, V.F. (2011). [Redistribution of water and sediment runoff in the Kiliya delta of the Danube under the conditions of the existence of the state agricultural holding "Danube - Black Sea"]. Tezisy VII Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii Pontus Euxinus 2011 po problemam vodnykh ekosistem, posvyashchennaya 140-letiyu Instituta biologii yuzhnykh morey Natsional'noy akademii nauk Ukrainy [Abstracts of the VII International Scientific and Practical Conference Pontus Euxinus 2011 on the Problems of Aquatic Ecosystems, dedicated to the 140th anniversary of the Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine], 24-27 may. Sevastopol': JeKOSI. Gidrofizika, pp. 254-255. (in Russ.)
Bondar, C. & ioRDaCHe, G. (2016). Sediment transport on the Romanian section of the Danube River, Geo-Eco-Marina, 22, рр. 83-108.
Panin, N. & Jipa, D. Danube river sediment input and its interaction with the north-western Black Sea: results of EROS-2000 and EROS-21 projects, National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology GeoEcoMar, Dimitrie Onciul Street, No. 23-25, pр. 1-14.
Baranya, S. & Józsa, J. (2013). Estimation of suspended sediment concentrations with ADCP in River Danube, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 61(3), рр. 232-240.
Tamás, E.A. & Ficsor, J. (2018). Questions in the quantitative analysis of sediment load ‒ example of three major rivers in Hungary. E3S Web of Conferences 40, 04023, River Flow. рр. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1051/ e3sconf/20184004023
Osadchyi, V.I. (ed.). (2013). Protsesy formuvannia khimichnoho skladu poverkhnevykh vod [Processes of formation of chemical composition of surface waters]. Kyiv: Nika-Tsentr Publ. (in Ukr.)
Khilchevskyi, V.K., Osadchyi V.I. & Kurylo S.M. (2019). Regional hydrochemistry of Ukraine. VPTs «Kyivskyi universytet» Publ. (in Ukr.)
Osadchyi, V.I. (2017). [Resources and quality of surface waters of Ukraine in the conditions of anthropogenic loading and climate change]. Za materialamy naukovoi do-povidi na zasidanni Prezydii NAN Ukrainy Visnyk NAN Ukrainy [According to the scientific report at the meeting of the Presidium of the NAS of Ukraine. Bulletin of the NAS of Ukraine]. 31 may, vol. 8. pp. 29-45. (in Ukr.)
Derzhavnyi vodnyi kadastr. Bahatorichni dani pro rezhym ta resursy poverkhnevykh vod sushi (za 2011-2015 rr. ta ves period sposterezhen) [State Water Cadastre. Long-term data on the regime and resources of land surface waters (for 2011-2015 and the entire observation period)]. (2017). Issue 1. Richky [Rivers]. Vol. 1. Baseiny Zakhidnoho Buhu, Dunaiu, Dnistra, Pivdennoho Buhu. Dovidkove vydannia [Basins of the Western Bug, Danube, Dniester, Southern Bug. Reference edition]. Kyiv. (in Ukr.)
Kaganer, M.S. (ed). (1969) Resursy poverkhnostnykh vod SSSR. Zapadnaya Ukraina i Moldaviya [Resources of surface waters of the USSR. Ukraine and Moldova]. Issue 1: Zapadnaya Ukraina i Moldaviya [Western Ukraine and Moldova]. Leningrad : Giometeoizdat Publ. (in Russ.)
Kaganer, M.S. (ed). (1978). Resursy poverkhnostnykh vod SSSR. Opisanie rek i ozer i raschety osnovnykh kharakteristik ikh rezhima [Resources of surface waters of the USSR. Description of rivers and lakes and calculations of the main characteristics of their regime]. Issue 1: Zapadnaya Ukraina i Moldaviya [Western Ukraine and Moldova]. Leningrad : Giometeoizdat Publ. (in Russ.)
Vyshnevskyi, V.I. & Kosovets, O.O. (2003). Hidrolohichni kharakterystyky richok Ukrainy [Hydrological characteristics of rivers of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Nika Tsentr Publ. (in Ukr.)
Shvebs, H.I. & Ihoshyn, M.I. (2003). Kataloh richok i vodoim Ukrainy [Catalog of rivers and reservoirs of Ukraine]. Odesa: Vydavnytstvo Astroprynt Publ. (in Ukr.)
Tymchenko, V.M. (2006). Ekologicheskaya gidrologiya vodoemov Ukrainy [Ecological hydrology of water bodies of Ukraine]. Kyiv: Naukova dumka Publ. (in Ukr.)
State Hydrological Institute (1984). SNіP 2.01.14-83. Posobie po opredeleniyu raschetnykh gidrologicheskikh kharakteristik [Manual for the determination of calculated hydrological characteristics]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat Publ. (in Russ.)
Shherbak, A.V. (1970). [Autumn-winter ice regime of the Soviet section of the river Danube]. Trudy UkrNIGMI [Proceedings UkrSRHMI], 97. pp. 70-83. (in Russ.)
Gorbachova, L. & Khrystyuk, B. (2012). The dynamics and probabilistic characteristics of the ice phenomena of the Danube River and its Kiliysky channel. Conference proceeding «Water resource and wetlands», 14-16 September. Tulcea, Romania, pр. 319-324.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.