Cost effective meter of moisture integral parameters of the atmospheric column
Continuous remote monitoring of the atmospheric physical parameters is an urgent task for solving the issues related to meteorology, climatology, artificial influence on clouds, studying the physical parameters of cloud cover etc. In the developed countries such issues are solved using science-driven technologies of millimeter wave range radiometry. They allow, in particular, quick restoration of the values of total content and effective temperature of droplet and vaporous moisture in the atmospheric column, and distinguishing the areas with crystalline, droplet or vaporous water phases.
This work aims at substantiating, by calculation and experiment, the possibility of large-scale solving the problems of continuous remote monitoring of the studied atmospheric moisture parameters using the method of centimetre wavelength range radiometry. To determine the best pair of frequencies for restoring the atmospheric moisture parameters based on radiometric data of remote sensing the linear absorption coefficients were calculated for clear atmosphere, for cloudy atmosphere depending on the temperature of drops and for rainfalls of various intensities for 4, 12, 20, 40 and 94 GHz frequencies. In order to calculate these data, we used a well-known MPM model (Atmospheric Millimeter-Wave Propagation Model). At the same time, calculation of the altitude profiles of the atmospheric meteorological parameters was carried out based on the ERA-15 model.
Comparison of the data obtained by calculation, taking into account the progress of the technical parameters of the serial element base, indicated a possibility of solving the above problems in the centimetre wavelength as well. The research presents a description of the diagram and technical solutions, as well as the appearance of a two-frequency radiometric system with 1.5 cm and 2.5 cm ranges created at the National Aerospace University (KhAI) on the basis of an easily accessible modern element base and full-scale tests' results. The budget-friendly focus of the described product allows for radiophysical measurement with a sensitivity of radiometers exceeding 0.01 K while ensuring the cost of small-scale production of the radio technical part of the system, comparable to the cost of TV converters commonly used in everyday life.
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