Scientific-methodical and practical principles for assessment of the key territories of the Eastern Podillya's econetwork based on the main criteria of their formation
The article presents scientific-methodical and practical principles for assessment of key territories of the ecological network of Eastern Podillya based on the main criteria of their formation. It offers the system of appropriate approaches and principles to be applied for formation of the key territories of the region's ecological network. The principle of representativeness should serve as a main criterion for selection of the key territories, however, we still advise to consider three types of such territories – biotic (botanical, zoological, mycological); geographical (landscape; biogeographical); geozoological (object; categorical; functional). Such aspects as area, size, configuration, state of internal ecological balance should play a significant role in creating the key territories, however, the qualitative and quantitative composition of protected objects, degree of anthropogenic impact on natural and man-made ecosystems and types of conservation regimes are also extremely important. Matrix representativeness, which is widely used in EU countries, should be also of great importance in forming a network of key territories. It is based on the landscape-zonal principle, where the systems of natural zoning units (biogeographical, geobotanical, floristic, forest typological, zoogeographical, physical-geographical) form the matrix of biodiversity species and landscapes. According to this principle, the basis for creation of key territories should by all means include typical (indicator) species of biodiversity, landscapes of all natural zones, subzones, regions, provinces, sub-provinces, districts. The field surveys of Eastern Podillya led us to a conclusion that a significant number of key territories do not perform a function of preserving biotic and landscape diversity. The conducted field researches allowed establishing the fact that there is a risk of losing such diversity under current ecological conditions of the region. Therefore, using the principle of representativeness, we presented a method of assessing the key territories of the Eastern Podillya's ecological network based on the main criteria of their formation. The main criteria include degree of naturalness of a certain key territory, its floristic and faunistic significance, landscape-coenotic and specific (relating to species) representativeness, purpose of a key territory, and its protected status (regime).
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