Altitude and zonal regularities and agro-ecological estimation of bioclimatic rhythms in Armenia
The article includes the data of long-term monitoring observations taken from 60 meteorological stations located at 450-3200 m above the sea level. It presents the results of study of time of occurrence, duration and spatial variability of bioclimatic rhythms of main ecotypes of agricultural crops under the conditions of high altitudes of the Republic of Armenia. It was found out that vertical gradients of the average periods of main phases of grow of winter wheat, potatoes, grapes and livestock pasturage within highland pastures fluctuate within 3-5 days / 100 m. Agro-ecological conditions for bioclimatic rhythms along high-altitude zones are estimated. The high-altitude regularities are determined and correlation dependence curves of time of occurrence of bioclimatic rhythms from absolute altitude are identified with specification of ways for optimizing heat and moisture availability and productivity of these crops. The probability of crop damage from drought, frosts in different periods of vegetation is calculated. Agro-climatic parameters of critical periods of growth and development of crops under study within high-altitude zones are determined which makes it possible to ensure production of stable and high yields. It became clear that the highest altitude for obtaining two crops a year after harvesting early spring grains, vegetables, potatoes is 1400 m above the sea level – in arid regions and 1200 m - in wet regions. It is proposed to develop a natural conveyor for fresh vegetables, potatoes, maize, fruit, dairy and other products using the vertical zonality of crops ripening and livestock pasturage within the summer pasture zone.
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