Air temperature and precipitation regime in Ukraine in 2021-2050 by CORDEX model ensemble
Global temperatures over the period of 2081–2100 are expected to rise by 0.3–4.8 °C compared to the period of 1986–2005. According to the previous studies, the average annual air temperature in all regions of Ukraine will keep increasing in the near future and the maximum increase in precipitation is expected mainly in the western and northern regions during winter and spring, whereas the decrease in precipitation will be registered in the central, eastern and southern regions during summer and autumn. This article aims to identify the features of changes in air temperature and precipitation for different regions of Ukraine in 2021–2050 based on the modelling results of the ensemble of CORDEX models as per the RCP4.5 scenario. 16 simulation runs for 7 regional climate models were selected for the analysis and the results were presented for five regional centers of Ukraine: Kyiv, Lviv, Kropyvnytskyi, Kharkiv and Odesa.
It is shown that future monthly precipitation in all regions tends to increase by an average of 20–40 mm during autumn, winter and spring, whereas the decrease is expected to occur in summer. According to some models, the monthly precipitation will be close to zero in the Southern Ukraine in July and August, which is typical for the Mediterranean climate. Compared to the period of 1961–1990, the average monthly temperature will undergo small changes (up to 1 °C) in spring and autumn, while the temperature in summer and winter will increase by 2.5–3.5 °C. In Odesa, in contrast to the present-day situation, a positive average monthly air temperature will be expected to be recorded throughout the whole year, and only 25% of the runs show negative average monthly minimum temperatures. In the Northern Ukraine, the average monthly minimum and maximum temperatures in winter will increase by 2.0–2.5 °C, and in summer only the maximum air temperature will increase significantly.
Thus, we can assume a change in the regime of moisture supply in Ukraine over the next thirty years. One can also assume a high probability of snow cover absence throughout the whole winter in the Southern Ukraine as a result of positive temperatures.
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