Current state and possibilities for oversized municipal waste management in the regions of Ukraine
Human life and activities generate municipal solid waste (MSW) consisting of municipal household waste (residential waste), waste from commercial organizations, waste from public institutions and organizations, waste from industrial enterprises, waste from urban maintenance and improvement. A common feature for all these types of waste is the fact that a municipality is an institution responsible for organization, management of its disposal process. Such waste is generated in everyday life, across the food network, when carrying out repair and construction works, in the municipal transport and communication systems, etc. The aim of the work is to assess the current state and possibilities of oversized municipal waste management in the regions of Ukraine. In order to achieve this aim, the study of the existing regulatory documents and existing experience in the field of oversized municipal waste management was conducted. The work is based on the analysis of the published data, as well as on the materials of our own research. The implementation of the MSW management system implies creation of a municipal center for recycling secondary raw materials based on the modular quarterly principle. A recycling station with a mandatory module for oversized waste reception and sorting should become a main structural element of the recycling center. In addition, it is proposed to create separate sites for collecting the oversized waste. This has already been implemented in some cities of Ukraine. When differentiating SMW flows, due attention is not paid to the used cars that can contingently be attributed to oversized secondary raw materials. In Ukraine the existing recycling centers do not meet modern requirements. Due to the lack of necessary experience in handling the used cars, one should turn to foreign experience and focus on the requirements of the developed countries. According to international standards, the life of a car is 10 years with its subsequent utilization in such a way that prevents it from having a negative impact on the environment. Since, as of today, 27% of cars in Ukraine are older than 30 years, so in case of their mandatory utilization, the number of such cars will be approximately 2.5 million. With such total number of used cars each region of Ukraine will need to handle about 100 thousand recyclable cars. It is hardly possible to create the recycling centers in each region, so, at the first stage, it is advisable to organize such centers, for example, in each economic region or cluster. The creation of the oversized municipal waste management system in the regions of Ukraine will make it possible to turn the waste into useful products, to reduce the level of a negative environmental impact and to obtain not only ecological, but also socio-economic effects.
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