Peculiarities of the environmental light pollution in Chernivtsi Region
Introduction. Every year industrial development and economic growth make light pollution worsen on a global scale. It is a well-known fact that artificial outdoor lighting causes destruction of wildlife habitat, impacts circadian rhythms of all living beings, disrupts animal behavior and leads to medical disorders of humans. Over the last decade scientists switched their focus from artificial sky glow over large cities to light pollution of rural landscapes, protected areas and roadways.
The purpose of this paper consists in assessing night-time light emissions over Chernivtsi Region as well as over city of Chernivtsi using satellite measurements.
Methods. Measurements of night-time light emissions were obtained with the help of GIS web application Radiance Light Trends and the light trends analysis tool. The application allows examination of changes in light pollution across selected areas since 1992 and performs time-series analysis with fitting an exponential curve into the data set.
Results. The trend in light emissions observed by satellites for Chernivtsi Region indicated brightening at the rate of 2.45 % per year from 1992 to 2014, and 2.93 % per year from 2014 to 2021. The marked increase in the intensity of atmospheric light pollution over Chernivtsi Region is largely attributable to urban expansion of district centers, national & international routes and resort complexes. At the same time, the spatial pattern of the light environment over city of Chernivtsi indicated a nearly constant level of aggregate annual light radiance for the last 8 years. A large irregularly shaped "light spot" was detected on the territory of the Prut-Siret interfluve. It crosses the region from the northwest to the southeast and covers the regional center with its suburbs and the national highway H-10. The night light radiance constitutes 47.49∙10-9 mW/cm2 sr in the center of the spot and more than 1∙10-9 mW/cm2 sr at its edges. The highest level of light pollution in Chernivtsi Region was registered in January, and the lowest – in March. Night-time light emission over two most illuminated highways remains relatively constant regardless of the season.
Conclusion. The study highlights that despite low population and low economic activity, rural landscapes demonstrate a trend towards increasing brightness of the night sky. The findings provide a quantitative reference for light pollution management in the region and for further research in the area.
Malchenko, S. & Slyusarenko, M. (2014). Doslidzhennia svitlovoho zabrudnennia nichnoho neba. [Study of light pollution of the night sky]. Teoretychna fizyka i astronomiia [Theoretical physics and astronomy], 15, pp. 81–86. (in Ukr.)
Nazarenko, L. A. & Chernets, V. S. (2014). Problemy svitlovoho zabrudnennia. [Problems of light pollution]. Svitlotekhnika ta elektroenerhetyka [Lighting and electricity], 2, pp. 6–17. (in Ukr.)
Katz, Y. & Levin, N. (2016). Quantifying urban light pollution – A comparison between field measurements and EROS-B imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment, 177, рр. 65-77.
Xiang, W. & Tan, M. (2017). Changes in light pollution and the causing factors in china’s protected areas, 1992–2012. Remote Sensing, 9(10), рр. 1026. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9101026
Semkiv, Yu.V. & Kaserevych, V.S. (2019). Matematychni modeli svitlovoho zabrudnennia atmosfery [Mathematical models of light pollution of the atmosphere]. Ternopil. (in Ukr.)
Falchi, F. et al. (2019). Light pollution in USA and Europe: The good, the bad and the ugly. Journal of environmental management, 248, рр. 109227. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.06.128
Jechow, A., & Hölker, F. (2020). Evidence that reduced air and road traffic decreased artificial night-time skyglow during COVID-19 lockdown in Berlin, Germany. Remote Sensing, 12(20), 3412. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12203412
Hatori, M. et al. (2017). Global rise of potential health hazards caused by blue light-induced circadian disruption in modern aging societies. Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 3(1), pp. 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41514-017-0010-2
Longcore, T., & Rich, C. (2004). Ecological light pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2(4), pp. 191-198.
Cabrera-Cruz, S.A., Smolinsky, J.A., & Buler, J.J. (2018). Light pollution is greatest within migration passage areas for nocturnally-migrating birds around the world. Scientific reports, 8(1), pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21577-6.
Škvareninová, J. et al. (2017). Effects of light pollution on tree phenology in the urban environment. Moravian geographical reports, 25(4), pp. 282-290. https://doi.org/10.1515/mgr-2017-0024
Anisimov, V.N. & Vinogradova, I.A. (2006). Cvetovoy rezhym, melatonin i risk razvitiya raka [Light regime, melatonin and cancer risk]. Voprosy onkologii [Oncology issues], 52(5), pp. 491–498. (in Russ.)
Barmasov, A.V., Barmasova, A.M. & Yakovleva, T.Yu. (2014). Biosfera i fizicheskie factory. Svetovoe zagryaznenie okruzhayushchey sredy. [Biosphere and physical factors. Light pollution of the environment]. Uchenye zapiski Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo gidrometeorologicheskogo universiteta. [Scientific notes of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University], 33, pp. 84–101. (in Russ.)
Hölker, F. et al. (2010). Light pollution as a biodiversity threat. Trends in ecology & evolution, 25(12), pp. 681-682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.09.007
Jechow, A., Kyba, C. C., & Hölker, F. (2020). Mapping the brightness and color of urban to rural skyglow with all-sky photometry. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 250, 106988. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2020.106988
Peña-García, A., & Sędziwy, A. (2020). Optimizing lighting of rural roads and protected areas with white light: A compromise among light pollution, energy savings, and visibility. Leukos, 16(2), pp. 147-156. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/15502724.2019.1574138
Peregrym, M. et al. (2020). Is artificial light at night dangerous for the Balkan strict protected areas at present?. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 231(2), pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-020-4452-y
Epishev, V.P., Isak, I.I. & Klimyk, V.V. (2005). Svitlove “zabrudnennia” nichnoho neba v punkti Uzhhorod [Light "pollution" of the night sky in Uzhgorod]. Naukovyi visnyk Uzhhorodskoho universytetu. Ser.: Fizyka. [Scientific Bulletin of Uzhhorod University. Ser.: Physics], 18, pp. 16–18. (in Ukr.)
Galetych, I.K. & Vergeles, Y.I. (2011). Kompleksnyi vplyv zabrudnen elektromahnitnoho pokhodzhennia na stan dovkillia velykoho mista (na prykladi svitlovoho zabrudnennia). [Complex influence of pollution of electromagnetic on the state of the environment of a big city (on the example of light pollution)]. Komunalne hospodarstvo mist [Municipal utilities], 101, pp. 139–149. (in Ukr.)
Petrova, G.I. (ed.). (2019). Transport i zviazok Chernivetskoi oblasti, 2018. Statystychnyi zbirnyk [Transport and Communication of Chernivtsi region, 2018. Statistical Yearbook]. Chernivtsi (in Ukr.)
Stare, J., & Kyba, C. (2019). Radiance Light Trends. Potsdam: GFZ Data Services. https://doi.org/ 10.5880/GFZ.1.4.2019.001
Coesfeld, J. et al. (2018). Variation of individual location radiance in VIIRS DNB monthly composite images. Remote Sensing, 10(12), 1964. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/rs10121964
Bará, S. (2018). Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed?. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 473(3), pp. 4164-4173. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2571
Kumar, P. et al. (2019). Artificial Light Pollution at Night: A risk for normal circadian rhythm and physiological functions in humans. Current Environmental Engineering, 6(2), pp. 111-125.
Kyba, C.C. (2018). Is light pollution getting better or worse? Nature Astronomy, 2(4), pp. 267-269. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-018-0402-7
Levin, N., & Zhang, Q. (2017). A global analysis of factors controlling VIIRS nighttime light levels from densely populated areas. Remote sensing of environment, 190, pp. 366-382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.01.006
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.