Evaluation of the ecological and geochemical state of surface water in Donbas
The article covers evaluation of the ecological and geochemical state of surface water and bottom sediments in Donbas, as well as their pollution resulting from spatio-temporal changes of natural and anthropogenic factors. It was established that chemogenic pollution occurs due to penetration of polluting elements into surface water as a result of filtration leaks from sedimentation tanks and water discharges made by enterprises of coal, chemical, metallurgical, coke-chemical and petrochemical industries. Increased concentrations of biogenic elements (mineral forms of nitrogen and iron) were recorded in the water of the Siverskyi Donets and the Luhan Rivers. The most significant deterioration of groundwater quality because of high content of sulfates and chlorides is observed within the watersheds of the Luhan River's valley.
Measurement results of the metals content indicated an increased content of copper and manganese. Some values even exceed the average annual concentrations specified by the existing normative values. In general, the results of the pollutants content analysis in the river basins under study did not reveal significant changes in the content of heavy metals during the period of military actions as compared to the results of government monitoring by 2014. The obtained experimental data indicate that vanadium, chromium and copper dominate in bottom sediments of all the studied objects. The greatest accumulation of heavy metals is observed in the Bakhmutka River and the Kryvyi Torets River. The research established that copper and plumbum in the bottom sediment samples taken from the Kryvyi Torets exceed the background values by 4-5 times. Zinc and vanadium exceed the background content values by 10 and 4 times, respectively. The same indicators are slightly lower in the Volyntsevske Reservoir and this fact is associated with more intense processes of water exchange and certain peculiarities of bottom sediments granulometric composition. Concentration of zinc is 3 times as much as the background level, vanadium and manganese – twice as much.
Heavy metals in the bottom sediments of the studied water bodies are characterized by uneven distribution. Vanadium and copper dominate in the content of bottom sediments. Concentrations of zinc, vanadium and nickel at certain objects also exceed their regional background content values. Titanium was detected in minimum quantities.
Shestopalov, V.M., Korzhnev, M.M., Vyzhva, S.A. et al. (2011). Ekoheolohiia Ukrainy [Ecogeology of Ukraine]. Kyiv. (in Ukr.)
Yakovliev, Ye.O. (2015). Asymiliatsiinyi potentsial heolohichnoho seredovyshcha hirnycho-dobuvnykh rehioniv Ukrainy yak providnyi pokaznyk ekolohichnykh problem nadrokorystuvannia. [Assimilation potential of the geological environment of mining regions of Ukraine as a leading indicator of ecological problems of subsoil use]. Mineral resources of Ukraine, 4, pp. 37-43 (in Ukr.)
Yakovliev, Ye.O. (2010). [Theoretical bases for estimating the time of flooding of mines and quarries]. Mineral resources of Ukraine, 2, рр. 35–39 (in Ukr.)
Yakovlev, E.A., Gosk, E.V. & Slyadnev, V.A. (2001). Predvaritelnaya otsenka regionalnogo vliyaniya zakrytiya shakht Makeevsko-Gorlovsko-Enakievskoy gorno-gorodskoy aglomeratsii na aktivizatsiyu protsessa podtopleniya, ukhudshenie inzhenerno-geologicheskikh usloviy i rost ekologicheskoy uyazvimosti podzemnykh vod [Preliminary assessment of the regional impact of the closure of mines in the Makeyevsko-Gorlovsko-Yenakievskaya mountain-urban agglomeration on the intensification of the process of flooding, deterioration of engineering and geological conditions and an increase in the ecological vulnerability of groundwater]. Haluzevi informatsiini biuleteni 1, 2 [Branch news bulletins 1, 2]. Kiev-Donetsk-Copenhagen: State Geological Services of Ukraine and Denmark (in Ukr.)
Belousova, A.P. et al. (2006). Ekologicheskaya gidrogeologiya [Ecological hydrogeology]. Moscow (in Russ.)
Bondar, O.I., Ulytskyi, O.A., & Yermakov, V.M. (2018). Zvit pro rezultaty vyvchennia ekolohichnoi sytuatsii na terytorii Donetskoi ta Luhanskoi oblasti [Report on the results of studying the ecological situation in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions]. Kyiv: Ministry of the Temporarily Occupied Territories and Internally Displaced Persons of Ukraine. (in Ukr.)
DSTU 7525: 2014. Voda pytna ta metody kontroliuvannia yakosti. [State Standard of Ukraine 7525: 2014. Drinking water and quality control methods]. Kyiv. Ministry of Economic Development. (in Ukr.)
Kerivnytstvo z kontroliu yakosti pytnoi vody [Guide to drinking water quality control]. Vol.2. Hihiienichni kryterii ta insha relevantna informatsiia. [Hygienic criteria and other relevant information]. (1987). World Health Organization. Moscow: Medytsyna (in Ukr.)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.